IDEOLOGICAL PERSEVERANCE AND IMITATION (الاجتهاد و التقليد)
THE FIRST ISSUE: IDEOLOGICAL PERSEVERANCE AND IMITATION.
We presented this issue because all the various controversial issues are based on Ideological perseverance and imitation.
Jurisprudence, monotheism and Sufism are all issues of perseverance, where misconception and accuracy will possibly occur.
We say: -
The peremptory issues; are the principles that ideological perseverance of scholars is disallowed, in and out, such as the obligatory prayer and fasting, while the presumptive issues are the subsections that perseverance of the scholars is actually allowed, and this is of two sections.
A section is in which the scholars had worked diligently on it. It is not permissible to disregard their work and re-strive therein, or else disorderliness will occur in the laws. The discoveries of the pristine scholars belong to this section.
The other section did not happen in the primitive time of the scholars, and no one had worked on it, such as the issue of life insurance and other new things that occurs, and it was not known earlier. Then, the Islamic schools are confined into two parts: - The PEOPLE of IDEOLOGY and ANALOGY, and three imams Abu Hanifa, Malik and Al-Shafi’i are recognised with this.
And the PEOPLE of the TEXT(HADITH) they are Ahmad bin Hanbal and his followers such as Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, these are people that prohibit imitation but rather ask people to be ideologically hardworking.
IDEOLOGICAL PERSEVERANCE(Ijtihad): Is when the jurisprudent made his effort to know the evidence of judgment from the book and the Sunnah.
The IMITATION(Teqleed): is to accept the statement of a diligent jurist without knowing his evidence and argument.
The Mujtahid(Researcher): is the jurist who deduced the branches of laws from the texts of the Holy Book and the Sunnah and analogize situations together.
And the first hard-working mujahideen from the Islamic denomination are many. Muslims are unanimous in recommending four of them, as a poem goes: -
"Al-Shafi’i has bright knowledge
in this world, and has aromatic praise.
And the Malik has a broad knowledge that has no limit like an overflowing sea.
And Ahmad was given, the credit of knowledge because
He narrated the Hadith and his sincerity is acknowledged.
But Abu Hanifa is the foremost, for that
his contributions and knowledge are unprecedented.
They are The Imams (Scholars), assigned by the Highest with his favour.
Their reach can never be gained."
The first of them: Abu Hanifa al-Numan Ibn Thabit, is a follower and was able to narrate hadith from seven Companions.
And the second of them: Malik bin Anas, the imam of the Dar al-Hijrah, a subordinate follower, both are well-known with Ideology.
And the third of them: Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi’i, tends to belong to the people of ideology, at times and to the people of Hadith (Text) at another time, because the people of analogy and Ideology has many advisory ideas(fatwas) and also have many juristic students.
And the fourth of them: Ahmad bin Hanbal, the supporter of the people of the hadith(text), does not rely on Ideology and analogy, but rather on the hadith, even if it is weak and presumptuous. For this, he does not have many fatwas and he has no scholars other than Bukhari and Muslim.
The doctrines of these four imams have spread throughout the world and have been imitated by anyone willingly, in the sub-issues in which ijtihad(Ideological research) is permissible.
Al-Hafiz Abu Umar Yusuf ibn Abdu-l-bari al-Maghribi said in his book collection of science explanation;
"The scholars did not disagree that the public has to imitate it scholars and that they are the ones whom should be asked", according to Almighty; (So ask the followers of the Reminder if you did not know). Al-Anbiya.
They agreed that the blind man must imitate those whom he trusts in distinguishing the qiblah, and also a person that has no knowledge or sight in the sense of what he worships must imitate his knowledgeable teacher. Likewise, the scholars did not disagree that the public is not permitted for advisory ideas.
WRITTEN IN ARABIC BY: SHEIKH ADAM ABDULLAHI AL-ILORY
TRANSLATED BY: S.A KOLAYO.